인도의 AFSPA법은 폐지되어야 한다.
- 2010.11.05 (00:00:00)
성명서 주요 내용소개
Ms.Sharmila는 2000년 11월, 여성과 어린이를 포함한 10명의 시민이 인도 보안군에 의해 살해당한 Malom 참사 이후 단식 투쟁을 시작했다. AFSPA는 인도 보안군의 행위를 정당하기 위한 수단으로 사용되었다.
인도 정부는 Ms. Sharmila의 평화적인 저항에 대해 자살 미수를 근거로 여러 번 체포하려 시도하였으며, 이는 인도 형법 309조에 반하는 불법 행위이다. 그녀는 현재 연급 상태에 놓여 있으며 가족, 언론, 동료 인권 운동가를 포함한 타인과 일체의 접촉도 금지된 상태이다.
AFSPA(Armed Forced Special Powers Act of 1958 )은 무장군의 요원에게 무영장 체포나 무력 사용 등 광범위한 권력을 허가하고 있으며, “어떠한 법이나 질서를 위반하는 행위”를 하는 모든 사람에 대한 권력의 행사가 가능하다. 이 법은 또한 무장군의 요원은 중앙 정부의 허가가 있는 경우에만 기소될 수 있다고 명기하고 있어 비처벌의 문화를 더욱 공고히 하고 있다.
AFSPA의 폐지는 UN 인권고등판무관 등 국제 사회에 의해 수 년에 걸쳐 요구되어 왔다.
우리는 이러한 집단적인 메세지에 동참하며, Ms. Sharmila가 더 이상 단식에 의해 고통받거나 인도에서 AFSPA에 의한 강제적인 법 집행이 일어나는 것을 원치 않는다.
우리, 아시아의 인권 옹호자들과 여성 인권 운동가들은, 하나로 AFSPA의 즉각적인 폐지와 Ms. Shamila의 단식 투쟁이 반드시 끝나야 함을 요구한다.
번역: 이태원 국제연대위원회 인턴
The direct cause for the hunger strike of Ms. Irom Sharmila is the Malom massacre in 2 November 2000 which had claimed lives of 10 civilians, including women and children, by the Indian security forces. Ms. Irom Sharmila took an indomitable stand that she will only end her fast when the Government of India repeals the AFSPA. Ironically, the Government of India responded to this act of peaceful protest by arresting her several times on charges of attempted suicide which is unlawful under Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code. The cycle of arrests of Ms. Irom Sharmila has continued for the past 10 years.
Ms. Irom Sharmila has been recognized internationally for her work on the issues of women’s empowerment, peace and human rights, and her non-violent means of fighting for human rights. In 2007, Ms. Irom Sharmila has been awarded the Gwangju Prize for Human Rights and in 2010, the Rabindranath Tagore Peace Prize. Despite the international community’s recognition of Ms. Irom Sharmila’s work, the Indian government insists on keeping her under judicial custody in the Security Ward of the Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital in Imphal, Manipur, and forcibly feeding her through nasogastric intubations.
The AFSPA was initially introduced in 1958 and was enforced in Manipur in 1980, initially intended to be in effect for only 6 months in order to maintain public order in areas deemed to be “disturbed” by the Indian government. However, the AFSPA is still being implemented in Manipur until now. The Act allows wider discretionary power to an officer of the armed forces to arrest without a warrant, and with the use of necessary force, anyone who has committed certain offenses or is suspected of having done so. Moreover, the Act also grants officers of the armed forces to fire upon or otherwise use force, even if this causes death, against any person who is acting in contravention of any law or order as well as to enter and search without warrant any premises to make arrests. The Act further stipulates that any officer of the armed forces may only be prosecuted upon the permission of the central government, a provision that further entrenches the culture of impunity.
The repeal of the AFSPA has been demanded over the years by the international community including the AFSPA Review Committee which formed by the Government of India as well as many human rights defenders in India and all over the world. In fact, in 2009, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms. Navanethem Pillay, during her visit to India in March 2009, said that the Act breached "contemporary international human rights standards." The European Parliament, in 14 June 2010, also raised the demand for the repeal of the AFSPA. In 2007, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination urged the Government of India to repeal AFSPA and replace it with a more humane Act within one year. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women also asked the Indian Government to “provide information on the steps being taken to abolish or reform AFSPA.”
The criminalization of Ms. Irom Sharmila’s peaceful protest against the AFSPA violates Article 1 of the UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, which guarantees the right of human rights defenders and women human rights defenders to promote and protect the realisation of human rights. Moreover, restriction imposed on Ms. Sharmila depriving her access with public media, human rights defenders and other people is in violation with said Declaration which ensure freedom of assembly and the right to communicate (Art. 5) and the right to access and disseminate human rights information and to draw public attention to human rights issues (Art. 6) .
On 2 November 2010, Irom Sharmila as well as the people of Northeast India will mark a decade of the hunger not only for fundamental human rights but also for truth on the foundations of Indian democracy. We join this collective message that we do not want another year of celebration of Ms. Irom Sharmila’s hunger strike and we do not want another year of the AFSPA’s enforcement in India.
We, human rights defenders and women human rights defenders in Asia, stand as one in demanding that the AFSPA should be repealed immediately and that the hunger strike of Ms. Irom Sharmila must end now.