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  • English
  • 2012.01.15
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  • 첨부 4

 

Counter-Piracy or Arms Race?

 

 

Yang Chih-Chinag(PSPD Intern) Jan. 3 2012

 

 

 

 

Background : Rise of Somali Piracy

 

- Somalia presents the highest cases of piracy among the locations of actual and attempted attacks, accounting for 139 out of 445 cases(31%) in 2010.

 

- Piracy in Somalia increased from 10 in 2006 to 139 in 2010.

 

- Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Oman as well as Somalia, all of the attacks are attributed to Somali pirates.

 

- Somali pirates increased from 22 in 2006 to 219 in 2010.

 

- Somali pirates accounted for the total piracy around 9 % in 2006, and it sharply increased up to 50% in 2010.

 

<Source> ICC-IMB Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ship Report – Annul Report

 

 

[Table1] Locations of Actual and Attempted Attacks 2006-2010

 

[Table1].PNG

<Source> ICC-IMB Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ship Report – Annul Report

 

 

[Chart1] Locations of Actual and Attempted Attacks 2010

꾸미기_chart 1.jpg

<Source> ICC-IMB Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ship Report – Annul Report

 

 

map1.PNG

<Source> 蔡裕明,〈第六屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術暨實務研討會, 民99117~190〉,

《索馬利亞海盜與國際社會反海盜作為-兼論中國反海盜政策》

 

 

 

 

The United Nations Resolutions for pirate attack off the coast of Somalia

 

- United Nation passed five different resolutions related to Somalia piracy in 2008.

 

- Resolution 1814 – May 15, 2008

 

- Resolution 1816 – June 02, 2008

 

- Resolution 1838 – October 07, 2008

 

- Resolution 1846 – December 02, 2008

 

- Resolution 1851 – December 16, 2008 

 

 

- In the Resolution 1816, the UN Security Council urged international society to cooperate with Somalia TFG (Transitional Federal Government) in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea.

 

- In the Resolution 1851, the UN Security Council Called on Member States to assist the TFG, at its request and with notification to the Secretary-General, to strengthen its operational capacity to bring to justice those who are using Somali territory to plan, facilitate or undertake criminal acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea, and stresses that any measures undertaken pursuant to this paragraph shall be consistent with applicable international human rights law.⑵

 

 

Rise of Somali Piracy and Each Country's Responses

 

1. CMF and CTF-151

 

 

1) The Combined Maritime Force(CMF) is a multi-national naval 

c90b515624444b79d00e5d4a16239052.jpg

partn and prosperity across approximately 2.5 million square miles of international waters in the Middle East. Moreover, CMF was established under the idea defeating terrorism after the 9/11 incident.⑶ership (Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, U.K. and U.S) and the commander is U.S Vice Admiral Mark Fox. CMF’s goal is to promote security, stability 

 

2) The Combined Task Force–151(CTF-151) is one of three forces operated by CMF and the mission of CTF-151 is focus on counter-piracy. CTF-151 was established in January 2009 under the authority of UNSCRs 1816, 1838, 1846 and 1897. Moreover, the CTF-151 is a multinational force and it is constantly changing as ships and aircraft from different countries assign vessels, aircraft and personnel to the task force.⑷

 

3) Japan – Japanese government passed an “Anti-piracy law” which makes the Japanese counter piracy operation legalized from the Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. Japan has been sending a regular patrol which included two destroyers to Aden Gulf since 2009. Japanese government announced a Japanese naval base constriction in Djibouti in June 2011.⑸ This naval base included two P-3C patrol aircraft, aircraft runway and 150 Self Defence Forces.

 

4) South Korea – In March of 2009, Korea government established a special fleet (Cheonghae Unit) for counter-Somali pirate. This unit contains one Chungmugong Yi Sun-shin class destroyers (5,250 tons) and 300 special operation navy (UDT/SEAL).⑹

 

 

2. NATO Operation Ocean Shield 

c90b515624444b79d00e5d4a16239052_1.jpg

 

 

This operation is carried out by NATO and it focus on at-sea counter-piracy.Moreover, this operation was approved by the 

North Atlantic Council on 17 August, 2009 and has been extended until the end of 2012.⑺

 

 

3. EU NAVFOR (Operation Atlanta and MSCHOA)

 

1) The Operation Atlanta was launched by EU NAVFOR in December 2008 and the Council of EU has decided to extend the operation until December 2012. Operation Atlanta exists to improving maritime security off the coast of Somalia and in Indian Ocean.⑻

 

935935e768177b7cd55c2b54fa924895.jpg

2) The Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa (MSCHOA)

is an initiative establishedby EU NAVFOR which keeps close cooperation with industry. This centre provides 24 hour manned monitoring of vessels transiting though the Gulf of Aden.


 

 

<Independent Operations>

 

4. India – In November of 2008, India government started the independently counter piracy operation. The counter piracy operation included three Tabar class destroyers (4,035 tons) and replenishment ship. In November 18 of 2008, India vice foreign affair minister announced that India is going to send a Delhi class destroyer (6,200 tons) to assist counter-pirate operation.⑼

 

5. Russia – Russian government carried out independently counter piracy operation in April 2009. The Russian Pacific Fleet composed a counter piracy patrol which included one Udaloy class destroyer (7,900 tons), one lifesaving tow-ship and two replenishment ships. Mover, in June 2010, Russian government decided to sent Admiral Levchenko class destroyer (in commission in 1988, 7,900 tons) to replace the Udaloy class destroyer (in commission in 1980, 7,900 tons).⑽

 

6. China – China started to the regular counter piracy operation in December 2008. That would be regard as the first Chinese navy oversea operation. The regular operation included one destroyer (6,500 tons), one frigate (4,053 tons), one replenishment ship. Moreover, ten operations were been carried out from 2008.

 

 

Pirates vs. Navy

 

There was some difference between pirate and national navy on their equipment.

Pirates vs. Navy.PNG

 

<Source> Composed by author and the reference from various internet news websites

 

 

 

 

 

The Presence of China in the Gulf of Aden 

      : The First Military Operation Overseas

 

 

- China didn’t join the international counter piracy operation like CTF-151 or cooperated with NATO Operation Ocean Shield and EU NAVFOR operation. China conducted an independently counter piracy operation like Russia and India.

 

- December 26, 2008, Chinese Navy commander Wu Shengli announced the establishment of official Counter-Somalia piracy navy patrol. This action was the first naval oversea operation of Chinese navy.

 

- Since the first operation in December 26, 2008, PLAN (People’s Liberation Army Navy) carried out ten times counter-piracy operation.

 

af76c6516f6ddc469611698e46e9fa05.PNG

 

- The establishment of Chinese first oversea naval base : The Foreign Minister ofRepublic of Seychelles 

(Island nation located in East Africa) Jean-Paul Adam asked Chinese Minister Liang Guanglie to consider about having a navy base in Seychelles in December 6, 2011. The official of Chinese Defense News Department spokesman:“In order to supplies the counter-piracy operation, to have an oversea base is considerable”.

 

d5bfa9cfd20a97ce721ec306819f29d1_1.PNG

 

PLAN Counter-Somalia piracy operation time table and the activities

67c90495a3292acc40294e4dbfbb7201.PNG

 

 

<Source> Author composed this table by referring the data from People’s daily website, Eastday website and Huaxia news website,

http://military.people.com.cn/GB/8221/72028/141596/, http://big5.eastday.com:82/gate/big5/mil.eastday.com/zt1/zghjdhd/index.html, http://big5.huaxia.com/zt/js/08-069/index.html.

 

 

 

Why PLAN does not send the counter-piracy fleet to Malacca?

 

- Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia announced that counter Malacca piracy was their responsibility and launched a Trilateral Coordinated Patrols-MALSINDO Malacca Straits Coordinated Patrol in 2003.

 

 

- Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia refused theproposal of joint counter-piracy from Japan, India and U.S in 2003.

 

- In the Sina military web site interview to the Chinese famous military expert Song Xiaojun, Song said this counter piracy operation was been widely regard as the raise of Chinese Naval ability.

 

 

- Since the People Republic of China(PRC) regime was established in 1949, there was no such naval oversea military action has been done. This was the first time that PLAN to conduct an institutionalized oversea operation.⒂

 

- According to the announcement of Chinese Counter-Somali Piracy operation, Hong Kong,Special Administrative Region of China, Macao and Taiwan, Province of China can apply the protection from Chinese Navy. 

 

 

 

Other Countries Response to the first Chinese naval overseas operation.

 

 

 

 

 

- The U.S:The U.S Pacific Command, Admiral Timothy Keating told the media that U.S navy welcomes Chinese Navy to join the regional counter piracy.

 

- India:In November 18 of 2008, India vice foreign affair minister announced that India is going to send a Delhi class destroyer (6,200tons) to assist counter-pirate operation.

 

- Russia:In June 2010, Russian government decided to send Admiral Levchenko class destroyer (in commission in 1988, 7,900 tons) to replace the Udaloy class destroyer (in commission in 1980, 7,900 tons).

 

- Japan:Japanese ex-general Hideaki Kaneda said that Japan should keep an eye on PLAN’s counter piracy operation.

 

----------------------------

⑴ UN Official Website, Security Council Resolution 1816, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N08/361/77/PDF/N0836177.pdf?OpenElement.

⑵ UN Official Website, Security Council Resolution 1851, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N08/655/01/PDF/N0865501.pdf?OpenElement.

⑶ Combined Maritime Forces official web page, CMF introduction, http://combinedmaritimeforces.com/about/.

⑷ Combined Maritime Forces official web page, CTF-151 Counter-piracy introduction, http://combinedmaritimeforces.com/ctf-151-counter-piracy/.

⑸ Ibid.

⑹ 韓聯網,《大祚榮艦開始執行索馬利亞海域船隻護航任務》, 2009823日,

http://big5.yonhapnews.co.kr:83/gate/big5/chinese.yonhapnews.co.kr/

n_society/2009/08/23/8200000000ACK20090823001400881.HTML.

⑺ North Atlantic Treaty Organization official web site, Counter-piracy operation, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_48815.htm.

⑻ EU NAVFOR Somalia official web site, Mission introduction, http://www.eunavfor.eu/about-us/mission/.

⑼ 華夏經緯網,《印度像索馬利亞海盜宣戰 增派導彈驅逐艦赴亞丁灣》, 20081121日, http://big5.huaxia.com/xw/gjxw/2008/11/1230364.html.

⑽ 東方軍事網,《俄羅斯與北約歐盟將聯合打擊索馬利亞海盜》, 201041號, http://big5.eastday.com:82/gate/big5/mil.eastday.com/m/20100401/u1a5122669.html.

 

 

⑾ 環球網,《建海外基地覺對必要 要敢於突破傳統觀念禁忌》, 2011126日, http://mil.huanqiu.com/Observation/2011-12/2236826.html.

 

 

⑿ 中央通訊社,《海外設基地 陸:考慮護航補給》, 2011年 12月 12

http://www2.cna.com.tw/SearchNews/hyDetailws.aspx?qid=201112120121&q=%E6%B5%B7%E5%A4%96%E8%A8%AD%E5%9F%BA%E5%9C%

B0%E3%80%80%E9%99%B8%EF%BC%9A%E8%80%83%E6%85%AE%E8%AD%B7%E8%

88%AA%E8%A3%9C%E7%B5%A6.

 

 

⒀ MINDFF Singapore website, “Launch of Trilateral Coordinated Patrols-MALSINDO Malacca Straits Coordinate Patrol”, July 20, 2004, http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2004/jul/20jul04_nr.html.

 

 

⒁ 文匯報,《專家:出兵象徵意義大》, 2008 12 27 日, 版3.

⒂  新浪軍事,《專家稱中國海軍未來將增加遠洋行動》, 20081226日,

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/2008-12-26/1202536503.html.

⒃ 中國評論網,《為台船護航 改善台灣民眾對解放軍的印象》, 20090114日, http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1008/5/6/9/100856918.html?coluid=0&kindid=0&docid=100856918.

中國網,《中國外洋戰略邁出第一步 外媒猜測護航意圖》, 20081222日,

http://big5.china.com.cn/military/txt/2008-12/22/content_16988421.htm.

⒅ 華夏經緯網,《印度像索馬利亞海盜宣戰 增派導彈驅逐艦赴亞丁灣》, 20081121日, 

http://big5.huaxia.com/xw/gjxw/2008/11/1230364.html.

 

 

⒆ 東方軍事網,《俄羅斯與北約歐盟將聯合打擊索馬利亞海盜》, 201041號,

http://big5.eastday.com:82/gate/big5/mil.eastday.com/m/20100401/u1a5122669.html.

 

 

⒇ Ibid.

 

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